Introduction to China Industrial Parks 


ETDZs

Economic and Technological Development Zones

 

Fourteen coastal cities were granted open policies and 14 Economic and Technological Development Zones (ETDZs) were established in 12 coastal cities between 1984 and 1988. The first ETDZs were in Dalian, Yantai, Qingdao, Lianyungang, Nantong, Minhang (Shanghai), Hongqiao (Shanghai), Caohejing (Shanghai), Ningbo, Fuzhou, Guangzhou and Zhanjiang. Unlike SEZs, an ETDZ is an area of land, typically all the suburban region of a major city. Within the ETDZ, special policies are adopted. An administrative committee, normally selected by the local government, oversees economic and social management in each zone.

 

The second wave of expansion of ETDZs was led by the establishment of Pudong New District in Shanghai in 1990. A concrete manifestation of China’s Pudong development plan, this move was aimed at elevating the status of Shanghai, making it the “Dragon Head” of the Yangtze River Delta Region, which comprises Shanghai and parts of Jiangsu and Zhejiang. Prior to the establishment of this new district, the Pearl River Delta Region, which  comprises nine cities in Guangdong, was the forerunner of China’s open door policy. But unlike Guangdong, which lies at the southeastern tip of China, Shanghai will have a big impact on economic development in China’s vast hinterland.

 

Between 1992 and 1993, a total of 18 state-level ETDZs were established, one each in Yingkou, Changchun, Shenyang, Harbin, Weihai, Kunshan, Hangzhou, Xiaoshan (a district in Hangzhou city), Wenzhou, Rongqiao (a county in Fuqing, Fujian), Dongshan (a county in Zhangzhou, Fujian) , Guangzhou Nansha, Huizhou Daya Bay, Wuhu, Wuhan, Chongqing, Beijing and Urumqi.

 

Two special projects were added later. Founded in 1993, Ningbo Daxie Development Zone was founded by China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC) and comes under its management. The other special project is  Suzhou Industrial Park, which was founded in 1994 by the governments of China and Singapore.

 

After 2000, to fuel the development of the central and western regions, the central government also endorsed the establishment of a further 11 national ETDZs in inland regions.

 

China currently has a total of 54 state-level ETDZs: 32 in coastal regions and 22 in the hinterland.

 

State-level Economic and Technological Development Zones (ETDZs)

 

Coastal Regions

Region

Names of ETDZs

Beijing

• Beijing

Shanghai

 

• Minhang

• Hongqiao

• Caohejing

• Jinqiao EPZ

Tianjin

• Tianjin (TEDA)

Fujian

 

• Fuzhou

• Haicang (in Xiamen)

• Dongshan (in Zhangzhou)

• Rongqiao (in Fuqing)

Guangdong

 

• Guangzhou

• Zhanjiang

• Nansha (in Guangzhou)

• Daya Bay (in Huizhou)

Hainan

• Yangpu

Hebei

• Qinhuangdao

Jiangsu

 

• Lianyungang

• Nanjing

• Nantong

• Kunshan

• Suzhou Industrial Park

Liaoning

 

• Dalian

• Yingkou

• Shenyang

Shandong

 

• Yantai

• Qingdao

• Weihai

Zhejiang

 

• Ningbo

• Hangzhou

• Xiaoshan

• Wenzhou

• Daxie (in Ningbo)

 

 

Hinterland

Region

Names of ETDZs

Chongqing

• Chongqing

Anhui

 

• Wuhu

• Hefei

Gansu

• Lanzhou

Guangxi

• Nanning

Guizhou

• Guiyang

Heilongjiang

• Harbin

Henan

• Zhengzhou

Hubei

• Wuhan

Hunan

• Changsha

Inner Mongolia

• Hohhot

Jiangxi

• Nanchang

Jilin

• Changchun

Ningxia

• Yinchuan

Qinghai

• Xining

Shaanxi

• Xi’an

Shanxi

• Taiyuan

Sichuan

• Chengdu

Tibet

• Lhasa

Xinjiang

 

• Urumqi

• Shihezi

Yunnan

• Kunming

Source: China Knowledge               

 

 Encouraged by the success of the state-level ETDZs, provincial-level, municipality-level, and even county-level ETDZs were established across China. Some of these local ETDZs offer more attractive policies than state-level ETDZs.

 

While there are some outstanding local ETDZs, they generally pale in comparison with state-level ETDZs in terms of infrastructure, management, and more importantly, the continuity of preferential policies.

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